Hunkar later became the mouthpiece of the peasant movement and the agrarian movement in Bihar and was instrumental in spreading the movement. He came to power in 750 in Gaur by a democratic election. In North and Central Bihar, a peasant movement was an important side effect of the independence movement. Chirand, on the northern bank of the Ganga River, in Saran district, has an archaeological record from the Neolithic age (about 2500–1345BC). [9][10] The classical Gupta dynasty of Bihar presided over a period of cultural flourishing and learning, known today as the Golden Age of India. Ghatotkacha (c. 280–319) CE, had a son named Chandra Gupta I (Not to be confused with Chandragupta Maurya (340–293 BC), founder of the Mauryan Empire). Pataliputra as a capital of Sher Shah's Empire. This page was last edited on 22 October 2020, at 00:36. The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. Under Ashoka, India was a prosperous and stable empire of great economic and military power whose political influence and trade extended across Asia and into Europe. Gautama Buddha undertaking extreme ascetic practices before his enlightenment under the Bodhi tree, on the bank of river Phalgu in Bodh Gaya, Bihar under. Karna, a friend of Duryodhana, was the king of Anga. Governor, Charles Stuart Bayley). 1990–2005: Lalu Prasad/ Rabri Devi term of Government (RJD Party). Finally on 15 August 1947 Bihar Province became part of independent India. 750–1200: The Pala Dynasty Expands into Magadh. Pataliputra as a capital of Gupta Empire. 1556–1764: Bihar becomes a province of the, 1764–1920: Migration of Bihari & Eastern United Provinces (modern-day Eastern Uttar Pradesh) workers across the British Empire under the rule of the Company and later Crown Government. The capital of Videha is believed to be either Janakpur (in Present-day Nepal),[32] or Baliraajgadh (in Present-day Madhubani district, Bihar, India).[33][34]. His platform was one of social justice, increasing reservations for lower castes. In 1576, after the Battle of Tukaroi, Mughal Emperor Akbar the Great conquered Bengal Sultanate and added it to his empire domain. The material sources of this age were Kalidasa's works. Gold coin of Chandragupta II with horse, British Museum. The greater part of the English residences were on the banks of the river, many of them being on the northern side of an open square, which formed the parade ground, and racecourse (present Gandhi Maidan). Many of these states have been mentioned in Buddhist and Jaina literature as far back as 1000 BCE. Ajatashatru went to war with the Licchavi several times. Raj Kumar Shukla maintained a diary in which he gave an account of struggle against the atrocities of the indigo planters, atrocities so movingly depicted by Dinabandhu Mitra in Nil Darpan, a play that was translated by Michael Madhusudan Dutt. Villages were the smallest units. The Vedas are believed to have documented a few Jain Tirthankaras and an ascetic order similar to the sramana movement. 1952-57:Bihar rated as the best administered among the states in the country. [8] Their capital Pataliputra, adjacent to modern-day Patna, was an important political, military and economic centre of Indian civilisation during the ancient and classical periods of Indian history. Jarasandha was the greatest among them during epic times. Gautama Buddha in the 6th or 5th century BCE was the founder of Buddhism, which later spread to East Asia and Southeast Asia, while Mahavira revived and propagated the ancient sramanic religion of Jainism. Known as the Mahendraditya, he ruled until 455. University of Poona. All forms of worship were carried out in Sanskrit. 1556: Mughal dynasty regains control of Agra after the Battle of Panipat. At its greatest extent, the Empire stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the Himalayas, and to the east stretching into what is now Assam. Due in part to this bloody dynastic feuding, it is thought that a civil revolt led to the emergence of the Shishunaga dynasty. It was led by Swami Sahajanand Saraswati and his followers Pandit Yamuna Karjee, Rahul Sankrityayan and others. 1955 The Birla Institute of Technology(BIT) is established. Now Beloved-of-the-Gods feels deep remorse for having conquered the Kalingas.". The difference between Gupta Empire's and Mauryan Empire's administration was that in the Mauryan administration power was centralised but in the Gupta administration power was more decentralised. [58][59] The Pala Empire eventually disintegrated in the 12th century under the attack of the Sena dynasty. 1540–1555: Shenshah SherShah Suri (from Sasaram, modern south Bihar) captures empire from Mughals (SherShah built the Grand Trunk Road, introduced the Rupee and Custom Duties). There was also the Golghar a wondrous bell-shaped building, one hundred feet high, with a winding outer staircase leading to the top, and a small entrance door at the base, which was intended for a granary, to be filled when there was the expectation of famine. A daughter of one of the Janaks of Mithila, Sita, is mentioned as consort of Lord Rama in the Hindu epic Ramayana, written by Valmiki. This period saw Bihar's exploitation at the hands of the rulers in the form of high taxes, but the Nawabs of Bengal also allowed trade to flourish in the region. The time has come for you to fulfill your promise. Bihar's contribution in the independence movement has been immense with famous leaders like Swami Sahajanand Saraswati,[85] Shaheed Baikuntha Shukla, Sri Krishna Singh (Sinha),Bihar Bibhuti Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Mulana Mazharul Haque, Loknayak Jayaprakash Narayan, Basawon Singh (Sinha), Yogendra Shukla, Sheel Bhadra Yajee, Pandit Yamuna Karjee, Dr. Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi and many others who worked for India's indepdence and worked to lift up the underprivileged masses. After the Kalingas had been conquered, Beloved-of-the-Gods came to feel a strong inclination towards the Dhamma, a love for the Dhamma and for instruction in Dhamma. It was the first time that a Neolithic settlement was discovered in the thick of the alluvium, over the bank of the Ganges at Chirand. Other historians, such as Etienne Lamotte[49] and Romila Thapar,[50] partially support this view. 490 BCE: Establishment of Pataliputra (Modern Patna). A minority provisional government was formed under Muhammad Yunus.[1]. Approximate greatest extent of the Gupta Empire. Provinces break away from the Magadh Empire. Metallurgy also made rapid strides. One of India's greatest empires, the Maurya empire, as well as two major pacifist religions, Buddhism and Jainism, arose from the region that is now Bihar. Samudragupta succeeded Chandra Gupta I in 335, and ruled for about 45 years, until his death in 380. 1883 - d. 1969) 5 Aug 1939 - 9 Jan 1943 Sir Thomas Alexander Stewart (b. Varahamihira's most important contributions are the encyclopaedic Brihat-Samhita and Pancha-Siddhantika (Pañcasiddhāntikā). His descendants, according to the Vayu Purana, ruled Magadha for 1000 years followed by the Pradyota dynasty, which ruled for 138 years from 799–684 BCE[contradictory]. 1988-1990: Unceremonious removal of Bihar CM Bhagwat Jha Azad, Veteran. Some scholars have believed that they were the forefathers of Magadhas because Kikata is used as synonym for Magadha in the later texts. [4] The Kings of the Videha Kingdom where called Janakas. [24] Bhagvata Purana mentions about the birth of Buddha among Kikatas. Former Princely States of Bihar and Zamindaris. Bihar played a major role in the Indian independence struggle. Raychaudhuri Hemchandra (1972), Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, pp.85-6, e.g. Champaran Satyagraha received the spontaneous support from many Biharis, including Brajkishore Prasad, Rajendra Prasad (who became the first President of India) and Anugrah Narayan Sinha (who became the first Deputy Chief Minister and Finance Minister of Bihar).[82]. They depict the sun, the moon, stars, animals, plants, trees, and, rivers, and it is speculated that they represent love for nature. '[93], 2005 Bihar assembly elections ended the 15 years of continuous RJD rule in the state, giving way to NDA led by Nitish Kumar. Since 1947 independence, Bihar has been an original state of the Indian Union. McDonell and Keith 1912, Vedic Index; Rahurkar, V.G. After the Pala period, Bihar played a very small role in Indian history until the emergence of the Suri dynasty during the Medieval period in the 1540s. The Mauryan Empire under Ashoka was responsible for the proliferation of Buddhist ideals across the whole of East Asia and South-East Asia. This movement by Mahatma Gandhi received the spontaneous support of a cross section of people, including Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Bihar Kesari Sri Krishna Sinha, Dr. Anugrah Narayan Sinha and Brajkishore Prasad. The Mahavamsa tells that a courtesan in that city, Ambapali , was famous for her beauty, and helped in … Prince Azim-us-Shan, the grandson of Aurangzeb was appointed as the governor of Bihar in 1703. The Mauryan empire under Chandragupta Maurya would not only conquer most of the Indian subcontinent, defeating and conquering the satraps left by Alexander the Great, but also push its boundaries into Persia and Central Asia, conquering the Gandhara region. The Gupta Dynasty also left behind an effective administrative system. [36] However, Jain orthodoxy believes it predates all known time. [25], Some scholars have placed the Kīkaṭa kingdom, mentioned in the Rigveda, in Bihar (Magadha) because Kikata is used as synonym for Magadha in the later texts;[26] however, according to Michael Witzel, Kīkaṭa was situated south of Kurukshetra in eastern Rajasthan or western Madhya Pradesh. Videha is mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata as comprising parts of Bihar and extending into small parts of Nepal. The earliest proof of human activity in Bihar is Mesolithic habitational remains at Munger. The people rose up and elected Shishunaga to become the new king, who destroyed the power of the Pradyotas and created the Shishunaga dynasty. 1946: First Cabinet of Bihar formed, consisting, 1950: The Dominion of India is replaced by a republic in 1950. Muhammad of Ghor's armies destroyed many Buddhist structures, including the great Nalanda university. After the fall of the Suri dynasty in 1556, Bihar again became a marginal player in India and was the staging post for the British colonial Bengal Presidency from the 1750s and up to the war of 1857–58. During the rule of the British East India Company in Bihar, Patna emerged as one of the most important commercial and trading centres of eastern India, preceded only by Kolkata. The Mahavamsa tells that a courtesan in that city, Ambapali, was famous for her beauty, and helped in large measure in making the city prosperous.[41]. 1935: 1935 Government of India Act federates the Indian Empire. By that time Bihar had many feudal estates or Zamindars. It was initially considered to be both politically and materially impracticable. [78] The British were able to successfully put down the revolt. Therefore, the Governor invited Shri Krishna Sinha to form the government. Only marginally less successful than his father, Chandra Gupta II expanded his realm westwards, defeating the Saka Western Kshatrapas of Malwa, Gujarat and Saurashtra in a campaign lasting until 409. [2], Coordinates: 25°36′N 85°06′E / 25.6°N 85.1°E / 25.6; 85.1,, Presidency of Coromandel and Bengal Settlements, List of princely states of British India (alphabetical), Territorial evolution of the British Empire,, States and territories established in 1936, States and territories disestablished in 1947, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Local Self-Government (including Medical and Excise), Deputy Premier, Finance and Local Self Government, 1 Apr 1936 - 11 Mar 1937 Sir James David Sifton (s.a.), 5 Aug 1939 - 9 Jan 1943 Sir Thomas Alexander Stewart (b.