Although swabs were taken from different regions of the oral cavity, the contents were combined and the oral flora in each specific area was not identified. Applied ultrasonic insert/tip (UIT) pressure is akin to that of an exploratory stroke. Fifty participants had a complete set of swabs from four different oral sites and a saliva sample taken at three time points over a 14‐day period. Table 3 indicates that Streptococcus salivarius was the most commonly discovered phylotype, found in 36% of participants. Use this stroke cautiously to remove supragingival deposits from the facial and lingual surfaces of the teeth. The sequences were submitted to the European Nucleotide Archive (, and only those with more than 200 bases and 98%‐100% alignment were considered sufficiently similar to confidently identify the phylotype.32. All recruited patients were allocated a study number. The activated UIT needs to remain in continual motion to limit the accumulation of frictional heat and reduce patient discomfort. Infections were defined as per local hospital policies. No statistically significant associations could be found between those who developed an infection (whether community‐ or hospital‐acquired) and a range of participant characteristics, including dental status and the presence or absence of specific bacterial phylotypes. 3-24). To describe the bacterial profile of the oral flora during the first 2 weeks following a stroke, examining changes in the condition of the oral cavity and infections. A consequence of this was that participants included in this study were older, were more dependent and had more problems than the wider cohort of stroke patients originally recruited. The ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference Committee. Avenues for future studies might also include the impact of probiotic oral bacteria on the diversity of phylotypes, risk of pneumonia and oral health in people who have had a stroke.65, 66. Pressure on staffing levels and an inability to recruit at weekends limited the researchers' ability to recruit consecutively admitted patients, and full data could only be obtained from participants who stayed on the unit for at least 2 weeks. A secondary goal was to explore changes in the condition of the oral cavity and associated clinical factors such as infection. This description of the bacteria found in the oral cavity adds to our knowledge and understanding of the oral flora and how it changes in the 2 weeks after a stroke. A limited number of phylotypes were found in the oral cavity in this study compared with those recovered in other similar studies.8, 35 Aas8 took samples from nine different sites and found the greatest diversity of phylotypes in samples taken from the tonsils, tooth surface and the subgingival area, which were facets of the oral cavity not sampled in this study. The primary purpose of this exploratory observational study was to apply molecular barcoding technology to describe the bacterial profile of the oral cavity during the first 2 weeks following a stroke. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Another limitation was that this study adopted the partial community DNA analysis employing cloning of PCR product of interest, followed by characterising cloned sequences for assessment of the genetic diversity in the number of different taxa present. Colonies were chosen and screened for having taken up the DNA of interest. The average number of different bacterial phylotypes found in each participant was 2.72, 2.76 and 2.32 at time points 1, 2 and 3, respectively, and ranged from 0 to 11. The seven phylotypes found most frequently in the oral cavity were all Streptococcal species, with S. salivarius in 36% of the full study population discovered most often. They also experienced fewer systemic infections, indicating a possible protective effect, but this was not statistically significant. 1. The full text of this article hosted at is unavailable due to technical difficulties. The phylogenetic tree with the highest log likelihood (−51127.6140) is shown in Figure 2. The current treatment plan in the patient dental record will indicate whether or not a tooth polishing should be done. On arrival, all specimens were checked for proof of receipt, logged electronically and then immediately stored at −80°C prior to subsequent analysis. … Training health workers on how to use the THROAT effectively may help identify stroke patients with oral health problems who need greater care and attention with their oral hygiene. No associations between any particular phylotype and infection were found. Module 11—Technique The primary purpose of this exploratory observational study was to apply molecular barcoding technology to describe the bacterial profile of the oral cavity during the first 2 weeks following a stroke. There were 103 different bacterial phylotypes identified, including 29 not previously found by HOMD.35, The phylotypes found in the most common twenty, other than Treponema pedis and Streptococcus suis, are considered normal commensals of the oral cavity.8, 36-38. The Instrumentation Stroke. S. salivarius can become pathogenic, but this is very rare and some strains are promoted as a probiotic, as they produce bacteriocins that inhibit other bacteria and foster a healthy, balanced oral flora.39-41 Participants who had S. salivarius in their oral cavity had greater diversity and significantly more phylotypes found across all three time points (average of 10.78 compared to 5.25, P<.001) than those without this bacterium. These results concur with a study conducted in Hong Kong which found that periodontal health as measured by plaque and bleeding scores was worse in a group of elderly people who had experienced a mild‐to‐moderate stroke compared with a comparative group of community‐dwelling elderly people who had not had a stroke.56 The authors of the Hong Kong study attributed this to the protracted reduction in hand, arm and oral sensori‐motor function experienced by people who have had a stroke. This meant that not every bacterial organism present within the clinical sample was identified and the relative abundance of the different species of bacteria in the given sample could not be measured. Although the THROAT is an ordinal scale, means for each item and time point were calculated so that differences between items and across time points could be explored. If you wish to opt out, please close your SlideShare account. Activating the Stroke Before starting the working phase of the stroke, tighten your grip on the instrument. A large proportion of participants had mild (66%, 48%, 62%) problems with their lips over time points 1‐3, respectively, but very few had moderate or severe problems in this area. Oral care after stroke: Where are we now?, There is a need for improved research about how best to maintain oral health in patients who have had a stroke including the benefits of maintaining a good diversity of bacteria in the oral cavity. S. pseudopneumoniae is phylogenetically related to S. pneumoniae and S. mitis and appears to be a respiratory tract coloniser, with the potential to become pathogenic.49 It is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory tract infections, particularly aspiration pneumonia.49-51. Phylotypes not found in HOMD; a shaded cell shows the time point at which the infection was first identified. Of the bacterial species found, 67 (65%) were gram‐positive, 34 (33%) were gram‐negative and two (2%) were gram‐variable. Elizabeth Boaden, PhD, Senior Research Fellow, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, School of Nursing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK. Each assessment was made blind to any previous ratings. Dementia & Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, College of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK, Greater Manchester Comprehensive Stroke Centre, and University of Manchester Stroke and Vascular Centre, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford, UK, Department of Health Services Research, Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, The Research Wing, School of Dentistry, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK, Australian Catholic University, North Sydney, Australia. The purified DNA pellets were resuspended in 50 μL of AE buffer (from kit) and quantified using a Nanodrop spectrophotometer. Common stroke sequelae such as hemiplegia may weaken limb movement and motor control. Average THROAT scores, where each area of the oral cavity is scored 0=normal; 1=mild problems; 2=moderate problems; 3=severe problems, are shown in Figure 5. Genomic DNA was pooled and then subjected to amplification as previously described by Paster et al.31 using the universal 16S rRNA bacterial gene primers D88F and E94R. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service—Greater Manchester South Ethics Committee (Reference number 12/NW/0268); and by the NHS Trust's Research and Development Department.