There is typically no basis for the definition of a third axis. However, the ventral side is softer in texture compared to the dorsal side because the ventral side is instinctively or physically protected by the dorsal side. For example, it is very confusing to say the dorsal fin of a dolphin is "right of" the left pectoral fin, but is "left of" the right eye, but much easier and clearer to say "the dorsal fin is medial to the pectoral fins". Dorsal side is simply the backside of an animal. Varus (from Latin 'bow-legged') and valgus (from Latin 'knock-kneed') are terms used to describe a state in which a part further away is abnormally placed towards (varus) or away from (valgus) the midline.[30]. The carapace of a crab is its dorsal side while a bee has its wings on the dorsal side. Their dorsal side is going to be the stomach that is face that's going to be the one that's facing the ground. If two structures are both on the left side of the body, they are _____ to each other. This picture is particularly interesting because it shows three degrees of dorsiflexion and one paw in full plantar flexion. Anatomical lines are used to describe anatomical location. Similarly, in the lower leg, structures near the tibia (shinbone) are tibial and structures near the fibula are fibular (or peroneal). I suspect that the etymology might derive from the fact that much of the scholarship of medieval and renaissance Europe was written in Latin. opposite anatomical term to the ‘dorsal’ and it describes anatomical structures located towards the stomach of the body Thanks for contributing an answer to Biology Stack Exchange! Another word for dorsal. 'left'). The analogous action to wrist flexion is one that would tip the sole of the foot downward, increasing the angle between foot and leg. Flexion refers to a movement that decreases the angle between two body parts. Find more ways to say dorsal, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. And surely if you've ever seen a human in the anatomical position, you can see that there's nothing dorsal about the top surface of the foot - it's superior, perhaps, but by no means dorsal. [1] One reason is that humans have a different neuraxis and another is that unlike animals that rest on four limbs, humans are considered when describing anatomy as being in the standard anatomical position, which is standing up with arms outstretched. Vertebrates have a ventral heart, which means that the term can be used to describe the relative position of organs inside bodies. I could put in a feature request ;p]. [65], Aspects of spider anatomy; This aspect shows the mainly prolateral surface of the anterior femora, plus the typical horizontal eye pattern of the Sparassidae, Typical arrangement of eyes in the Lycosidae, with PME being the largest, In the Salticidae the AME are the largest, Standard terms for unambiguous description of relative placement of body parts, "Anterior" redirects here. dorsal tubular nerve cordc. For example, structures at the level of the fourth cervical vertebra may be abbreviated as "C4", at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra "T4", and at the level of the third lumbar vertebra "L3". The dorsal side of the upper and lower extremity begin on the dorsal/posterior surface of the body. Why did the F of "sneeze" and "snore" change to an S in English history? Does the material component of Booming blade need to the same one used in the attack? Specific terms exist to describe how close or far something is to the head or tail of an animal. [3] An organism that is round or not symmetrical may have different axes. Similarly, the term "caudal" is used more in embryology and only occasionally used in human anatomy. "Lateral", "dorsal", and "ventral" have no meaning in such organisms, and all can be replaced by the generic term peripheral (from Ancient Greek περιφέρεια 'circumference'). If anything, the action opposite to plantar flexion moves the foot in the ventral direction, doesn't it? Here Be Dragons: A Creature Identification Quiz. Find opposite of Dorsal hyponyms, hypernyms, related words and definitions. In projectional radiography terminology, an anteroposterior (AP) projection is taken with the X-ray generator anteriorly (such as in the front of a human), and the X-ray detector posteriorly. [46] For example, structures may be described relative to the anterior superior iliac spine, the medial malleolus or the medial epicondyle. They are used in anatomy, surface anatomy, surgery, and radiology.[46]. The bulges in the cerebral cortex are called _____. Learn a new word every day. However, some biradially symmetrical comb jellies do have distinct "tentacular" and "pharyngeal" axes[63] and are thus anatomically equivalent to bilaterally symmetrical animals. For example, as humans are approximately bilaterally symmetrical organisms, anatomical descriptions usually use the same terms as those for vertebrates. [43][44][45] In humans, "cranial" and "cephalic" are used to refer to the skull, with "cranial" being used more commonly. Structures closer to the radius are radial, structures closer to the ulna are ulnar, and structures relating to both bones are referred to as radioulnar. pharyngeal pouchesd. en An opening (12) is formed in the dorsal side of the hand covering, and extends from a location (14) rearward of the thumb receptacle, across the dorsal side, to a side (38) of the hand covering opposite the thumb receptacle. The meaning of terms that are used can change depending on whether an organism is bipedal or quadrupedal. How to prove episodes of academic misconduct? In such organisms, only terms such as superficial and deep, or sometimes proximal and distal, are usefully descriptive. All rights reserved. And then dorsal. For example, in a fish, the pectoral fins are dorsal to the anal fin, but ventral to the dorsal fin. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. What does dorsal mean, and what is its opposite? Seventh ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.